The hummingbird is named after its pleasant humming sound when it hovers in front of flowers to feed. But only now has it become clear how the wing generates the hummingbird’s namesake sound when it is beating rapidly at 40 beats per second.
Researchers from Eindhoven University of Technology, Sorama, a TU/e spin-off company, and Stanford University meticulously observed hummingbirds using 12 high-speed cameras, 6 pressure plates and 2176 microphones. They discovered that the soft and complex feathered wings of hummingbirds generate sound in a fashion similar to how the simpler wings of insect do. The new insights could help make devices like fans and drones quieter. The team of engineers succeeded in measuring the precise origin of the sound generated by the flapping wings of a flying animal for the first time. The hummingbird’s hum originates from the pressure difference between the topside and underside of the wings, which changes both in magnitude and orientation as the wings flap back and forth. These pressure differences over the wing are essential, because they furnish the net aerodynamic force that enables the hummingbird bird to liftoff and hover.Unlike other species of birds, a hummingbird wing generates a strong upward aerodynamic force during both the downward and upward wing stroke, so twice per wingbeat. Whereas both pressure differences due to the lift and drag force acting on the wing contribute, it turns out that the upward lifting pressure difference is the primary source of the hum.
The difference between whining, humming, buzzing and wooshing
Professor David Lentink of Stanford University: “This is the reason why birds and insects make different sounds. Mosquitoes whine, bees buzz, hummingbirds hum, and larger birds ‘woosh’. Most birds are relatively quiet because they generate most of the lift only once during the wingbeat at the downstroke. Hummingbirds and insects are noisier because they do so twice per wingbeat.” The researchers combined all measurements in a 3D acoustic model of bird and insect wings. The model not only provides biological insight into how animals generate sound with their flapping wings, it also predicts how the aerodynamic performance of a flapping wing gives the wing sound its volume and timbre. “The distinctive sound of the hummingbird is perceived as pleasant because of the many ‘overtones’ created by the varying aerodynamic forces on the wing. A hummingbird wing is similar to a beautifully tuned instrument,” Lentink explains with a smile.
Making drones quieter
Although it was not the focus of this study, the knowledge gained may also help improve aircraft and drone rotors as well as laptop and vacuum cleaner fans. The new insights and tools can help make engineered devices that generate complex forces like animals do quieter.